Planck early results. XXI. Properties of the interstellar medium in the Galactic plane

TitrePlanck early results. XXI. Properties of the interstellar medium in the Galactic plane
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2011
AuteursCollaboration}, {Planck, Abergel a., Ade P. a. R., Aghanim N., Arnaud M., Ashdown M., Aumont J., Baccigalupi C., Balbi A., Banday A. J., et al.
JournalAstronomy & Astrophysics
Date Publishedjan

(abridged) Planck has observed the entire sky from 30 GHz to 857GHz. The observed foreground emission contains contributions from different phases of the interstellar medium (ISM). We have separated the observed Galactic emission into the different gaseous components (atomic, molecular and ionised) in each of a number of Galactocentric rings. Templates are created for various Galactocentric radii using velocity information from atomic (neutral hydrogen) and molecular (12CO) observations. The ionised template is assumed to be traced by free-free emission as observed by WMAP, while 408 MHz emission is used to trace the synchrotron component. Gas emission not traced by the above templates, namely "ark gas", as evidenced using Planck data, is included as an additional template, the first time such a component has been used in this way. These templates are then correlated with each of the Planck frequency bands, as well as other ancillary data. The emission per column density of the gas templates allows us to create distinct spectral energy distributions (SEDs) per Galactocentric ring and in each of the gaseous tracers from 1.4 GHz to 25 THz (12$\backslash$mu m). Apart from the thermal dust and free-free emission, we have probed the Galaxy for anomalous (e.g., spinning) dust as well as synchrotron emission. We show that anomalous dust emission is present in the atomic, molecular and dark gas phases throughout the Galactic disk. The derived dust propeties associated with the dark gas phase are derived but do not allow us to reveal the nature of this phase. For all environments, the anomalous emission is consistent with rotation from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and, according to our simple model, accounts for \$(25\backslash pm5)%\$ (statistical) of the total emission at 30 GHz.